Converting arguments to standard form

But the Lions losing their final game of the season is not the only reason why the coach's job is in jeopardy. This justification has developed from an ideological linking of language and national unity since the s. If cloning has some potentially beneficial applications, and if worries about cloning can be handled by establishing reasonable guidelines, then we should cautiously explore it rather than banning it altogether.

Therefore, Some pets are not mammals. If it could, then lots of people would win. Again, we start by breaking the text into a numbered list of propositions.

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And if you get convicted of a misdemeanor offense, it's a parole violation. Recognizing Categorical Propositions Of course, the premises and conclusion of an ordinary-language argument may not be categorical propositions at all; even in this case, it may Converting arguments to standard form possible to translate the argument into categorical logic.

Thus, for example, "Some birds are geese, so some birds are not felines, since no geese are felines" is just a categorical syllogism stated in the non-standard order minor premise, conclusion, major premise; all we need to do is put the propositions in the right order, and we have the standard-form syllogism: Therefore, UFOs are abducting human beings from the Earth.

If UFOs were abducting human beings from the Earth, then there would be a lot of people who claim to have been abducted.

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Attempts to legislate linguistic practices often fail. If UFOs were abducting human beings from the Earth and doing experiments on them, then there would be a lot of people who claim to have been abducted.

So please help somebody! A lot of people claiming to have been abducted is not sufficient grounds to conclude that UFOs are really abducting humans, particularly when there are other, more likely explanations.

Putting arguments into standard form

It is not clear that legislative remedies, even if employed, would change language habits. I heard that while he was on parole, Fernando went base jumping in Yosemite and got caught.

It is unlikely that cloning will be used to promote any sort of "breeding program. First, it is valid, it is clear, and it captures the overall structure of the reasoning.

Philosophy - converting into Standard Argument Form.?

The increased isolation of Quebec from the rest of Canada provides an instructive case to show the inadvisability of attempting to resolve political problems by language legislation. Remember that your task is not to criticize or evaluate the argument! If you have not taken philosophy, then you will not know what I am asking.

And if Fernando violates his parole one more time, immigration services is going to deport him. Therefore, TWA did not suffer from mechanical failure. See there was no clear second premise so I made my own, can you do that? All dogs are mammals. Add implicit premises or conclusions.

Greg will be posting occasional questions and responses from the ISA Mentor Programwith contributions from program participants. Usually it is either a premise or a conclusion, but sometimes a single proposition may be both the conclusion of one argument and a premise of another.

My teacher is not very good at explaining and will not even recommend a good book for me to read to help understand. With careful safeguards, human cloning very well might play an important role in human reproduction.

We did not find evidence of a bomb in the wreckage and there was not a plausible claim of responsibility by a terrorist group. Thus, for example, "Since some hawks have sharp beaks, some birds have sharp beaks" is a second-order enthymeme, and once a plausible substitute is provided for its missing minor premise "All hawks are birds"it will become the valid IAI-3 syllogism: Fernando got caught base jumping in Yosemite.

Some birds are geese. You end up buying things you neither want or need; like a singingflipping rubber fish on a board. King calls this factor "unique otherness" 61and notes that one finds it in quadri-lingual Switzerland as well as in India, with nineteen recognized languages.

If positive thinking could help you win the lottery, then lots of people would win the lottery. So the conclusions that 4, 5, and 6 are supposed to support must be above.

Rising concerns about bilingualism and the adjustment of immigrants to American culture have led a number of people to call for "English-only" laws to require the use of English--and English alone--in official documents and transactions of the U.

Women live longer than men, on the average. How charitable should we be when we are reconstructing an argument? We do not see any of the reasoning that led to premises 2 and 3. This standard-form version of the argument provides a good condensation of King's position and evidence in the article.

Notice that when we add it, the argument becomes valid and much clearer:This should give you a highly condensed standard-form version of the argument.

5. Use the standard-form version of the argument as an outline for your reconstruction/summary. In other words, each thematic issue should form one part of your paper, and should be treated in a paragraph or two.

PHIL /ENGL Reconstruction/Summary Paper. Here is an example of how to convert a relatively simple prose argument into standard form. Let’s take a sample from Bailey’s discussion of inductive arguments. We will be careful to keep the author's words within quotation marks whenever we use them.

Nevertheless, in order to assertain the validity of many ordinary language arguments, accurate translation into standard form categorical propositions is essential for testing validity.

Occasionally translation into standard form reveals fallacies of equivocation or amphiboly in the original text. The standard form of an argument is a way of presenting the argument which makes clear which propositions are premises, how many premises there are and which proposition is the conclusion.

In standard form, the conclusion of the argument is listed last. May 04,  · There is a need to develop skills of logical translation to standard form categorical propositions in order to minimize errors in evaluating syllogistic arguments. Very often translation into standard form reveals fallacies of equivocation and fallacies of amphiboly in the original text.

People reasoning in ordinary language rarely express their arguments in the restricted patterns allowed in categorical logic. But with just a little revision, it is often possible to show that those arguments are in fact equivalent to one of the standard-form categorical syllogisms whose validity we.

Converting arguments to standard form
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